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    Review Article Open Access
    Liver Fibrosis as an Independent Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Dmitry Victorovich Garbuzenko
    Journal of Translational Gastroenterology, Published online March 1, 2024. doi:10.14218/JTG.2023.00071
    Abstract
    This review summarizes the current investigations that confirm the significance of liver fibrosis (LF) as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in non-alcoholic fatty liver [...] Read more.

    This review summarizes the current investigations that confirm the significance of liver fibrosis (LF) as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science platform, Reference Citation Analysis, and Cochrane Systematic Reviews were searched for articles published between 2008 and 2023. Relevant articles were identified using the following keywords: “cardiovascular diseases”, “cardiovascular risk factors”, “non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”, “nonalcoholic steatohepatitis”, and “liver fibrosis”. The reference lists of the identified articles were also searched for other relevant publications. The investigations that described LF as a cardiovascular risk factor in NAFLD met the inclusion criteria. NAFLD occupies a leading position among liver diseases worldwide. Cardiovascular disorders are the most significant cause of unfavorable outcomes in NAFLD patients. Currently, the relationship between them is well established. The pathophysiological mechanisms predisposing to the development of cardiovascular disorders in NAFLD include atherogenic dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism and liver insulin resistance, low-grade systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular remodeling, as well as gut dysbiosis, which are influenced by numerous genetic and epigenetic factors. Identification of cardiovascular risk factors in NAFLD is an important public health issue. At present, there is evidence that the presence of advanced LF may be a strong independent predictor and risk factor for cardiovascular disorders in NAFLD. It is obvious that early diagnosis of LF will allow to stratify NAFLD patients by cardiovascular risk groups and thereby determine the most optimal therapeutic interventions.

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    Original Article Open Access
    RAMP1 Protects Hepatocytes against Ischemia-reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting the ERK/YAP Pathway
    Yongsheng Tang, Zenan Yuan, Xu Lu, Yingqiu Song, Shuguang Zhu, Chunhui Qiu, Qi zhang, Binsheng Fu, Changchang Jia, Hua Li
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online February 29, 2024. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2023.00339
    Abstract
    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is a prevalent complication of liver transplantation, partial hepatectomy, and severe infection, necessitating the development of more [...] Read more.

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is a prevalent complication of liver transplantation, partial hepatectomy, and severe infection, necessitating the development of more effective clinical strategies. Receptor activity–modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a member of the G protein–coupled receptor adapter family, has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes. The study aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of RAMP1 in HIRI.

    We established a 70% liver ischemia-reperfusion model in RAMP1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. Liver and blood samples were collected after 0, 6, and 24 h of hypoxia/reperfusion. Liver histological and serological analyses were performed to evaluate liver damage. We also conducted in-vitro and in-vivo experiments to explore the molecular mechanism underlying RAMP1 function.

    Liver injury was exacerbated in RAMP1-KO mice compared with the sham group, as evidenced by increased cell death and elevated serum transaminase and inflammation levels. HIRI was promoted in RAMP1-KO mice via the induction of hepatocyte apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. The absence of RAMP1 led to increased activation of the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and yes-associated protein (YAP) phosphorylation, ultimately promoting apoptosis. SCH772984, an ERK/MAPK phosphorylation inhibitor, and PY-60, a YAP phosphorylation inhibitor, reduced apoptosis in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments.

    Our findings suggest that RAMP1 protects against HIRI by inhibiting ERK and YAP phosphorylation signal transduction, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for HIRI and providing a new avenue for intervention.

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    Review Article Open Access
    A Clinical Review on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Sruthi Suriyakumar, Shalini Sivadasan, Thiruvengadarajan Vasanthi Srinivass, Rajasekaran Aiyalu
    Future Integrative Medicine, Published online February 29, 2024. doi:10.14218/FIM.2023.00026
    Abstract
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a prevalent and progressive respiratory disorder characterized by persistent airflow limitation, often associated with chronic bronchitis [...] Read more.

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a prevalent and progressive respiratory disorder characterized by persistent airflow limitation, often associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This abstract provides a comprehensive overview of COPD, emphasizing its clinical significance and impact on global health. COPD represents a significant public health concern, with escalating prevalence and mortality rates worldwide. Understanding epidemiological trends and risk factors is crucial for effective disease management and prevention strategies. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines serve as a compass in COPD management. It provides a comprehensive overview of the GOLD guidelines, elucidating their role in risk stratification, treatment escalation, and personalized care for individuals across varying disease severities. The management of COPD involves a multidimensional approach targeting symptom relief, improving lung function, and enhancing overall quality of life. Pharmacological interventions, such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents, play a pivotal role. Beyond conventional pharmacological treatments, various traditional therapies have gained attention in COPD management. These may include complementary and alternative medicine practices, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and yoga. While evidence supporting the efficacy of these interventions is still evolving, exploring their potential benefits. A comprehensive and integrative approach is crucial for optimizing COPD care and improving the lives of individuals affected by this intricate respiratory condition. This abstract concludes by encouraging continued collaboration among clinicians and patients to shape the future of COPD care. Ultimately fostering hope for improved outcomes and an enhanced prospect for those living with severe respiratory ailments.

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    Review Article Open Access
    Environmental Triggers’ Involvement in the Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    Tajudeen Olanrewaju Yahaya, Umar Usman Liman, Caleb Dikko Obadiah, Zafira Illo Zakari, Daniel Anyebe, Boniface Gomo Clement, Balkisu Marafa Muhammad
    Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online July 27, 2022. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2022.00051
    Abstract
    The huge burden of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been a source of concern globally since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th–19th centuries. To this end, studies have shown [...] Read more.

    The huge burden of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been a source of concern globally since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th–19th centuries. To this end, studies have shown that certain environmental changes that accompanied the Revolution may have increased the risk and burden of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. However, documented studies that synthesize these environmental triggers are scarce. As a result, the current study was conceived to synthesize the environmental triggers of T1DM to boost public awareness. Relevant information was retrieved from reputable academic databases; namely, Scopus, PubMed, SpringerLink, and Embase. The results showed that chemical exposure, viral infection, gut microbiome disruption, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, inadequate or exclusive breastfeeding, as well as early exposure to infant feeding formulas could increase the risk and burden of T1DM in genetically predisposed individuals. As a consequence, these triggers could compromise the expression of certain genes involved in insulin synthesis and immune function, such as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), insulin (INS), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) genes. This would result in a dysfunctional immune system in which immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells and molecules, such as cytokines would attack self-tissues, thus causing autoimmunity of the pancreatic beta cells. Environmental triggers could also induce the T1DM pathophysiology by modifying the epigenome of the mentioned genes. Furthermore, some epigenetic changes could be reversed, which would infer that treatment procedures that would include the pathophysiology of the environmental triggers could be more effective.

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    Original Article Open Access
    Overexpression of RBM34 Promotes Tumor Progression and Correlates with Poor Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Wei Wang, Rui Zhang, Ning Feng, Longzhen Zhang, Nianli Liu
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online July 13, 2022. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2022.00166
    Abstract
    Emerging evidence suggests that RNA-binding motif (RBM) proteins are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and act either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The objective of this study [...] Read more.

    Emerging evidence suggests that RNA-binding motif (RBM) proteins are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and act either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of RBM34, an RBM protein, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    We first examined the expression of RBM34 across cancers. The correlation of RBM34 with clinicopathological features and the prognostic value of RBM34 for HCC was then investigated. Functional enrichment analysis of RBM34-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed to explore its biological function. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was applied to identify downstream genes and pathways affected upon RBM34 knockout. The correlation of RBM34 with immune characteristics was also analyzed. The oncogenic function of RBM34 was examined in in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    RBM34 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlated with poor clinicopathological features and prognosis. RBM34 was positively associated with tumor immune cell infiltration, biomarkers of immune cells, and immune checkpoint expression. A positive correlation was also observed between RBM34, T cell exhaustion, and regulatory T cell marker genes. Knockout of RBM34 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and xenograft tumor growth, and sensitized HCC cells to sorafenib treatment. RBM34 inhibition reduced FGFR2 expression and affected PI3K-AKT pathway activation in HCC cells.

    Our study suggests that RBM34 may serve as a new prognostic marker and therapeutic target of HCC.

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    Original Article Open Access
    Naringenin is a Potential Immunomodulator for Inhibiting Liver Fibrosis by Inhibiting the cGAS-STING Pathway
    Li Chen, Siwei Xia, Shuqi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhou, Feixia Wang, Zhanghao Li, Yang Li, Desong Kong, Zili Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Xuefen Xu, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online April 28, 2022. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2022.00120
    Abstract
    Naringenin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid that has been studied in chronic liver disease. The mechanism specific to its antifibrosis activity needs further investigation This [...] Read more.

    Naringenin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid that has been studied in chronic liver disease. The mechanism specific to its antifibrosis activity needs further investigation This study was to focused on the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) pathway in hepatic stellate cells and clarified the antifibrosis mechanism of naringenin.

    The relationship between the cGAS-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway and liver fibrosis was analyzed using the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining, Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction were performed to assess gene and protein expression levels associated with the cGAS pathway in clinical liver tissue samples and mouse livers. Molecular docking was performed to evaluate the relationship between naringenin and cGAS, and western blotting was performed to study the expression of inflammatory factors downstream of cGAS in vitro.

    Clinical database analyses showed that the cGAS-STING pathway is involved in the occurrence of chronic liver disease. Naringenin ameliorated liver injury and liver fibrosis, decreased collagen deposition and cGAS expression, and inhibited inflammation in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mice. Molecular docking found that cGAS may be a direct target of naringenin. Consistent with the in vivo results, we verified the inhibitory effect of naringenin on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). By using the cGAS-specific agonist double-stranded (ds)DNA, we showed that naringenin attenuated the activation of cGAS and its inflammatory factors affected by dsDNA. We verified that naringenin inhibited the cGAS-STING pathway, thereby reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors by HSCs to ameliorate liver fibrosis.

    Interrupting the cGAS-STING pathway helped reverse the fibrosis process. Naringenin has potential as an antihepatic fibrosis drug.

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Special Features

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Updates of Cytopathology Reporting Systems'

Journal: Journal of Clinical and Translational Pathology
Special Issue: Updates of Cytopathology Reporting Systems
Submission deadline: November 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Frontier research on the toxicity and efficacy of Chinese medicine'

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Frontier research on the toxicity and efficacy of Chinese medicine
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue ‘New Translational Challenges in Primary Biliary Cholangitis’

Journal: Journal Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Special Issue: New Translational Challenges in Primary Biliary Cholangitis
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue ‘A Spotlight on Progress and Pitfalls in NAFLD/MAFLD Studies, 2022’

Journal: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Special Issue: A Spotlight on Progress and Pitfalls in NAFLD/MAFLD Studies, 2022
Submission deadline: March 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Comparative study of traditional medicine in the world'

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Comparative study of traditional medicine in the world
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Therapeutic effects of herbal medicines on neurological impairment and related mental disorders based on the evidence of clinical and basic studies'

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Therapeutic effects of herbal medicines on neurological impairment and related mental disorders based on the evidence of clinical and basic studies
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue ‘Immunoregulatory Mechanisms of Herbal Medicines in Cancer and Infectious Diseases’

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Immunoregulatory Mechanisms of Herbal Medicines in Cancer and Infectious Diseases
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted
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