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    Original Article Open Access
    HLA-G Polymorphic Variation (G*0104N exon 3) Confers Potential Risk for Recurrent Pregnancy Losses: A Study in a High Incidence Zone (Kashmir, North India)
    Arshad A. Pandith, Usma Manzoor, Ina Amin, Shayaq Ul Abeer Rasool, Zahoor A. Wani, Iqbal Qasim, Saima Wani, Iqra Anwar, Shayesta Rah, Masarat Rashid, Adil Lateef, Aabida Ahmad
    Gene Expression, Published online June 12, 2024. doi:10.14218/GE.2023.00144
    Abstract
    HLA-G gene harbors certain polymorphic variations that can potentially impact its biological activity, and therefore, may confer a risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This [...] Read more.

    HLA-G gene harbors certain polymorphic variations that can potentially impact its biological activity, and therefore, may confer a risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This study aimed to analyze whether HLA-G polymorphic variations (G*0103, G*0104, and G0105N) are related to the risk of RPL in women from Kashmir, North India.

    A total of 200 women who suffered ≥2 RPLs and 240 healthy controls were recruited from the same geographical region. Additionally, 100 spouses of RPL affected women and 60 products of conception were evaluated. HLA-G genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

    The variant genotype 0103:0103 in exon 2 of HLA-G was not detected. The genotype 0104/0105 was detected in 100% of RPL patients, spouses, and controls. Exon 2 and variant genotypes G*0103 in exon 2 and G*0105 in exon 3 of HLA-G were absent in our population and thus did not contribute to the etiopathogenesis of RPL. In contrast, the exon 3 HLA-G variant G*0104N was significantly more frequent in RPL patients and their spouses compared to the control group (p<0.05). The presence of the HLA-G variant genotype G*0104N (exon 3) was detected in 13% of RPL patients and 7% of their male partners, indicating a significantly higher frequency than in controls and suggesting a substantial risk for RPL (p<0.05).

    This study revealed that the higher frequency of the HLA-G*0104 allele in both partners strongly predicted a substantial risk for RPL in our population.

    Full article
    Original Article Open Access
    TIMP-1 Promotes Expression of MCP-1 and Macrophage Migration by Inducing Fli-1 in Experimental Liver Fibrosis
    Xiaoli Huang, Xiaofan Wang, Yanhong Wang, Shuangjun Shen, Wei Chen, Tianhui Liu, Ping Wang, Xu Fan, Lin Liu, Jidong Jia, Min Cong
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online June 11, 2024. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2023.00514
    Abstract
    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) plays a role in the excessive generation of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis. This study aimed to explore the pathways through [...] Read more.

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) plays a role in the excessive generation of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis. This study aimed to explore the pathways through which TIMP-1 controls monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and promotes hepatic macrophage recruitment.

    Liver fibrosis was triggered through carbon tetrachloride, and an adeno-associated virus containing small interfering RNA targeting TIMP-1 (siRNA-TIMP-1) was administered to both rats and mice. We assessed the extent of fibrosis and macrophage recruitment. The molecular mechanisms regulating macrophage recruitment by TIMP-1 were investigated through transwell migration assays, luciferase reporter assays, the use of pharmacological modulators, and an analysis of extracellular vesicles (EVs).

    siRNA-TIMP-1 alleviated carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis, reducing macrophage migration and MCP-1 expression. Co-culturing macrophages with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) post-TIMP-1 downregulation inhibited macrophage migration. In siRNA-TIMP-1-treated HSCs, microRNA-145 (miRNA-145) expression increased, while the expression of Friend leukemia virus integration-1 (Fli-1) and MCP-1 was inhibited. Downregulation of Fli-1 led to decreased MCP-1 expression, whereas Fli-1 overexpression increased MCP-1 expression within HSCs. Transfection with miRNA-145 mimics reduced the expression of both Fli-1 and MCP-1, while miRNA-145 inhibitors elevated the expression of both Fli-1 and MCP-1 in HSCs. miRNA-145 bound directly to the 3′-UTR of Fli-1, and miRNA-145-enriched EVs secreted by HSCs after TIMP-1 downregulation influenced macrophage recruitment.

    TIMP-1 induces Fli-1 expression through miRNA-145, subsequently increasing MCP-1 expression and macrophage recruitment. MiRNA-145-enriched EVs from HSCs can transmit biological information and magnify the function of TIMP-1.

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    Hypothesis Open Access
    Endogenous Opioids Contain Terminal Amino Acids that May Be Transformed to Catecholamines In Vivo and Modulate Pain
    Paul J. Fitzgerald
    Journal of Exploratory Research in Pharmacology, Published online June 11, 2024. doi:10.14218/JERP.2023.00026
    Abstract
    Feedback loops or compensatory mechanisms are present in a wide range of biological systems and processes. Here, we hypothesize that endogenous opioid peptides, such as endorphins [...] Read more.

    Feedback loops or compensatory mechanisms are present in a wide range of biological systems and processes. Here, we hypothesize that endogenous opioid peptides, such as endorphins and enkephalins, can be broken down and enzymatically converted to catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine) locally. Particularly, this proposed local production of norepinephrine may modulate analgesia through feedback mechanisms. A similar arrangement may occur for corticotropin-releasing factor and adrenocorticotropic hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis mediation), insulin (blood glucose regulation), and angiotensin II (cardiovascular regulation). Endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins have an initial amino acid sequence of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, where tyrosine (and possibly phenylalanine) could be enzymatically clipped from the peptide and converted to catecholamines locally, through the canonical biosynthetic molecular pathway for catecholamines. Spatially and possibly temporally precise conversion of these terminal amino acids to catecholamines may allow them to be produced “on demand” in specific regions of the brain, spinal cord, or periphery. This hypothesis is readily testable by infusing stable isotopically labeled opioids into the brain or periphery of model organisms, and observing through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry whether the terminal amino acids of these opioids are converted to catecholamines.

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    Review Article Open Access
    Environmental Triggers’ Involvement in the Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    Tajudeen Olanrewaju Yahaya, Umar Usman Liman, Caleb Dikko Obadiah, Zafira Illo Zakari, Daniel Anyebe, Boniface Gomo Clement, Balkisu Marafa Muhammad
    Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine, Published online July 27, 2022. doi:10.14218/ERHM.2022.00051
    Abstract
    The huge burden of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been a source of concern globally since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th–19th centuries. To this end, studies have shown [...] Read more.

    The huge burden of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been a source of concern globally since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th–19th centuries. To this end, studies have shown that certain environmental changes that accompanied the Revolution may have increased the risk and burden of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. However, documented studies that synthesize these environmental triggers are scarce. As a result, the current study was conceived to synthesize the environmental triggers of T1DM to boost public awareness. Relevant information was retrieved from reputable academic databases; namely, Scopus, PubMed, SpringerLink, and Embase. The results showed that chemical exposure, viral infection, gut microbiome disruption, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, inadequate or exclusive breastfeeding, as well as early exposure to infant feeding formulas could increase the risk and burden of T1DM in genetically predisposed individuals. As a consequence, these triggers could compromise the expression of certain genes involved in insulin synthesis and immune function, such as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), insulin (INS), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) genes. This would result in a dysfunctional immune system in which immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells and molecules, such as cytokines would attack self-tissues, thus causing autoimmunity of the pancreatic beta cells. Environmental triggers could also induce the T1DM pathophysiology by modifying the epigenome of the mentioned genes. Furthermore, some epigenetic changes could be reversed, which would infer that treatment procedures that would include the pathophysiology of the environmental triggers could be more effective.

    Full article
    Original Article Open Access
    Overexpression of RBM34 Promotes Tumor Progression and Correlates with Poor Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Wei Wang, Rui Zhang, Ning Feng, Longzhen Zhang, Nianli Liu
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online July 13, 2022. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2022.00166
    Abstract
    Emerging evidence suggests that RNA-binding motif (RBM) proteins are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and act either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The objective of this study [...] Read more.

    Emerging evidence suggests that RNA-binding motif (RBM) proteins are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and act either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of RBM34, an RBM protein, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    We first examined the expression of RBM34 across cancers. The correlation of RBM34 with clinicopathological features and the prognostic value of RBM34 for HCC was then investigated. Functional enrichment analysis of RBM34-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed to explore its biological function. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was applied to identify downstream genes and pathways affected upon RBM34 knockout. The correlation of RBM34 with immune characteristics was also analyzed. The oncogenic function of RBM34 was examined in in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    RBM34 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlated with poor clinicopathological features and prognosis. RBM34 was positively associated with tumor immune cell infiltration, biomarkers of immune cells, and immune checkpoint expression. A positive correlation was also observed between RBM34, T cell exhaustion, and regulatory T cell marker genes. Knockout of RBM34 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and xenograft tumor growth, and sensitized HCC cells to sorafenib treatment. RBM34 inhibition reduced FGFR2 expression and affected PI3K-AKT pathway activation in HCC cells.

    Our study suggests that RBM34 may serve as a new prognostic marker and therapeutic target of HCC.

    Full article
    Original Article Open Access
    Naringenin is a Potential Immunomodulator for Inhibiting Liver Fibrosis by Inhibiting the cGAS-STING Pathway
    Li Chen, Siwei Xia, Shuqi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhou, Feixia Wang, Zhanghao Li, Yang Li, Desong Kong, Zili Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Xuefen Xu, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Published online April 28, 2022. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2022.00120
    Abstract
    Naringenin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid that has been studied in chronic liver disease. The mechanism specific to its antifibrosis activity needs further investigation This [...] Read more.

    Naringenin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid that has been studied in chronic liver disease. The mechanism specific to its antifibrosis activity needs further investigation This study was to focused on the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) pathway in hepatic stellate cells and clarified the antifibrosis mechanism of naringenin.

    The relationship between the cGAS-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway and liver fibrosis was analyzed using the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining, Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction were performed to assess gene and protein expression levels associated with the cGAS pathway in clinical liver tissue samples and mouse livers. Molecular docking was performed to evaluate the relationship between naringenin and cGAS, and western blotting was performed to study the expression of inflammatory factors downstream of cGAS in vitro.

    Clinical database analyses showed that the cGAS-STING pathway is involved in the occurrence of chronic liver disease. Naringenin ameliorated liver injury and liver fibrosis, decreased collagen deposition and cGAS expression, and inhibited inflammation in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mice. Molecular docking found that cGAS may be a direct target of naringenin. Consistent with the in vivo results, we verified the inhibitory effect of naringenin on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). By using the cGAS-specific agonist double-stranded (ds)DNA, we showed that naringenin attenuated the activation of cGAS and its inflammatory factors affected by dsDNA. We verified that naringenin inhibited the cGAS-STING pathway, thereby reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors by HSCs to ameliorate liver fibrosis.

    Interrupting the cGAS-STING pathway helped reverse the fibrosis process. Naringenin has potential as an antihepatic fibrosis drug.

    Full article
Special Features

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Updates of Cytopathology Reporting Systems'

Journal: Journal of Clinical and Translational Pathology
Special Issue: Updates of Cytopathology Reporting Systems
Submission deadline: November 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Frontier research on the toxicity and efficacy of Chinese medicine'

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Frontier research on the toxicity and efficacy of Chinese medicine
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue ‘New Translational Challenges in Primary Biliary Cholangitis’

Journal: Journal Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Special Issue: New Translational Challenges in Primary Biliary Cholangitis
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue ‘A Spotlight on Progress and Pitfalls in NAFLD/MAFLD Studies, 2022’

Journal: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Special Issue: A Spotlight on Progress and Pitfalls in NAFLD/MAFLD Studies, 2022
Submission deadline: March 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Comparative study of traditional medicine in the world'

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Comparative study of traditional medicine in the world
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue 'Therapeutic effects of herbal medicines on neurological impairment and related mental disorders based on the evidence of clinical and basic studies'

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Therapeutic effects of herbal medicines on neurological impairment and related mental disorders based on the evidence of clinical and basic studies
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted

Call for Papers for Special Issue ‘Immunoregulatory Mechanisms of Herbal Medicines in Cancer and Infectious Diseases’

Journal: Future Integrative Medicine
Special Issue: Immunoregulatory Mechanisms of Herbal Medicines in Cancer and Infectious Diseases
Submission deadline: June 30, 2023
Publication date: An article will be published online as soon as it is accepted
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